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2016-01-31 ArtNo.45649
◆Net neutrality: Facebook puts up response to Trai letter




【New Delhi】Facebook on the 20th January responded to the telecom regulator's letter which called the social network's "Save Free Basics" campaign "crudely majoritarian and orchestrated opinion poll".
 Facebook, which has drawn much flak for its "Save Free Basics" campaign in India, in a largely unprecedented move, put up the letter on its Facebook India page, possibly in response to Trai making the communication between the two parties public on Tuesday.
 The company has said in the letter that it "did attempt to cooperate" with the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India's request to submit specific responses to the differential pricing paper by delivering a request for additional information, and that it got 1.4 million Indian users' responses.
 Facebook also said that it is unaware of any other commentors being asked to revise their answers if they did not address the four specific questions asked by Trai.
○Trai to issue net neutrality norms soon




【New Delhi】Asked if the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (Trai) would also come out with a consultation paper on net neutrality, Trai chairman R S Sharma said they’d “take a call” on the suggestion.
 The representatives from consumer rights groups, telecom operators and sectoral bodies all took part in an open house discussion organised by the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (Trai) on the topic of a differential price for data services.
 Trai had earlier attacked Facebook’s campaign for Free Basics. “Your urging (to Facebook consumers to lobby with Trai) has the flavour of reducing this meaningful consultative exercise, designed to produce informed decisions in a transparent manner, into a crudely majoritarian and orchestrated opinion poll,” it had told the social media giant.
○What is Net Neutrality, Free Basics, more: All you wanted to know in 10 slides




【New Delhi】As the debate over Net neutrality and Free Basics intensifies, particularly with the sparring match between the telecom regulator and some stakeholders like Facebook, here's all you wanted to know in 10 quick responses: (Reuters)
 《Q 1》 What is Net Neutrality?
 《Answer》 The expression "network neutrality" was coined by American academic Tim Wu in his 2003 paper "Network Neutrality, Broadband Discrimination". It calls for governments, Internet service providers and other stakeholders to treat all data on the Internet equally -- therefore, not charging users, the content providers, platforms, sites, applications or the mode of communicating differentially. (AP)
 《Q 2》 What is Free Basics?
 《Answer》 A service from Facebook and a part of its Internet.org platform on digital inclusion, Free Basics is an app that promises to make Internet accessible to more people by providing them a range of some basic services for free such as news, health, travel, jobs, sports, communication and other information. (Reuters)
 《Q 3》 Is Free Basics against concept of Net Neutrality?
 《Answer》 The supporters of net neutrality say that by allowing only certain sites and platforms on the app, and by allowing the services only through some service providers, the concept clearly goes against the spirit of net neutrality of open and free access to the World Wide Web and its attendant offerings. (Reuters)
 《Q 4》 How does Free Basics work?
 《Answer》 Through this platform, Facebook allows developers to create services (content and applications) that integrate with Free Basics, especially in areas like education, health, economic empowerment, civic participation and critical information. Once downloaded, they can access these services free of charge through the app and through a particular Internet service provider who will partner with Facebook. (Reuters)
 《Q 5》 Why is there a demand to ban Free Basics in India?
 《Answer》 This demand is being made by several people who claim to be supporters of net neutrality and they say Facebook intends to offer the services only through chosen service providers. This is being seen as discriminatory. The social networking site also has the option to reject the entry of any business participant. This apart, there is a charge that the service is pandering to the interests of telecom service providers by not allowing Internet telephony, or hi-resolution images and videos that can potentially slow down the service. (Reuters)
 Advertising is another area of debate, as there is no clarity on whether Facebook will introduce it in the future or not. However, Facebook's contention is that it is providing a free service to those who cannot pay for access. It says it does not stop anyone from accessing the Internet through other service providers. (PTI)
 《Q 6》 Does concept of Net Neutrality affect bandwidth differential charges?
 《Answer》 Today, one pays the telecom operator or data service providers towards two aspects -- for the speed at which content is downloaded and uploaded, and the amount of information in terms of bits that is accessed. Net neutrality calls for uniformity in such tariff. This may be impossible because service providers have to invest in infrastructure and different bandwidths call for different level of investments. (Reuters)
 《Q 7》 How does Net Neutrality concept work in other countries, especially the US?
 《Answer》 In the US, the regulator, Federal Communications Commission, has issued some rules to Internet service providers, like no blocking of legal sites, no throttling by making some site responses slow, and no paid prioritisation to enable some sites to jump the queue in delivering content. The courts have given limited ruling in favour of the regulator, but debate there still continues. (Reuters)
 《Q 8》 If Net Neutrality has impact on bandwidth, how will this have impact on services like Netflix?
 《Answer》 While Netflix is a subscription-based service, what is of concern is the extra money which subscribers have to pay for bandwidth to Internet service providers for accessing it through their networks. Here lies the problem. There have been attempts in the past for zero-rated services, where content from some platforms is not taken into account for computing the tariff. But the question is: Will such a plan not go against net neutrality? (AP)
【News source】

Net neutrality: Facebook puts up response to Trai letter

Net Neutrality Standoff Escalates As TRAI Hauls Facebook Over the Coals in New Letter

Trai to issue net neutrality norms soon

What is Net Neutrality, Free Basics, more: All you wanted to know in 10 slides

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