≪New book≫An Epic Tale of the People of the Covenant (The origin of Christianity)
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Last year, I published the 6th edition of my book "The Origin of Christianity" with the subtitle "An Epic Tale of the People of the Covenant," paying attention to the fact that Christianity was born from the "church movement" that had occurred in the process of the people of the Covenant scattered all over the world after they had migrated from the Fertile Crescent at the mouths of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers to the Promised Land Canaan. However, later, it became clear that the Ephraim and Manasseh, only who possess the genetic characteristics of Paleo-Mongoloid among the twelve tribes of Israel, played an important role not only in the conquest of Canaan but also in the eastern transmission of Christianity. Thus, this time, I deliver this 7th edition with the main title of "An Epic Tale of the People of the Covenant."
In creating the augmented part of the 7th edition, I got many hints from the blog of Protestant Bible commentator Mr. Arimasa Kubo (久保有政), who was the first pastor of the Ikebukuro-Nishi Church, and used them as the reference.
In the region from Mesopotamia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river to Palestine, city states, where agricultural and nomadic people had lived together, have risen and fallen since ancient times. The agricultural people played leading role in the most of these city states. However, the nomads traded not only with Egypt in the west but also with India and China in the east and served as catalysts for cross-cultural fusion.
These nomads include not only tribes of Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Zebulun, Issachar, Dan, Gad, Asher, Naphtali, Joseph and Benjamin, who have cultural backgrounds of Mesopotamia and Egypt, but also Manasseh and Ephraim, who have the Y chromosome gene D, which is characteristic of the Tibetans and the Jomon people (縄文人), the indigenous people of the Japanese archipelago, and seem to have been belonged to the Paleo-Mongoloids. They had also believed in different patron gods. But they formed a union of independent tribes and established the unity of religion and politics based on the covenant of the single founder Abraham and God from 3,000 to 4,000 years ago in Palestine region and appeared on history's center stage replacing agricultural people. Thus the People of the Covenant was born.
Though Judaism was originally an exclusive and introvert religion, as the twelve tribes of Israel incorporated the extroverted and harmonious Ephraim and Manasseh tribes of Paleo-Mongoloid, Judaism and Christianity were propagated to not only the Mediterranean region, but also to Central Asia, India, China, and even Japanese archipelago. Moreover, Jingjiao (景教Luminous Religion), which is considered to be the origin of the Oriental Christian churches, played a role as a catalyst for the birth of Islam and the Mahayana Buddhist movement. As a result, the total number of the People of the Covenant, that is, Judaism, Christianity and Islam, is said to be 3.4 billion now.
Part 4: Thomas' Eastern Evangelism
A thread of fate binding between St. Thomas' Mission to Beijing and Wa-koku (倭国)
According to Protestant Bible commentator Mr. Arimasa Kubo, who was the first pastor of the Ikebukuro-Nishi Church, The United Church of Christ in Japan, St. Thomas traveled to Assyria around 35 C.E., two years after Jesus' ascension, and went on a mission to India, and then evangelized to China via Tibet, reached the present Beijing (北京) in 62 C.E., and seems to have established an organized church (congregation), too. By the way, why did Thomas go to the northern frontier town called Ji Xian (薊県), but not Luo Yang (洛陽) or Chang An (長安), capital cities of the later Han (后漢)? Apostles at that time, whether Paul or John, all preached to areas where a Jewish community already existed, and it is probable that there was also a Jewish community in Beijing at that time.
Come to think of it, on the monument of 'Reconstruction of the Temple of Purity and Truth (重建清真寺記碑)' discovered in Kaifeng city (開封市) of eastern Henan province (河南省) of China, it is said to be written that the Jews first arrived in the city in 231 BC, when General Ben Wang (王賁) of Qin (秦) reduced Wei (魏)'s capital city, Daliang (大梁: current Kaifeng City), and formed a Jewish community. Almost ten years later, in 226 BC, General Ben Wang reduced Yan (燕)'s royal capital, Jicheng (薊城, now the city of Beijing), and Kingdom of Yan was extinguished in 222 BC.
Seen as the mother tribe of Qin (秦), the Qiang (羌) tribe was literally herders that grazed sheep, and was a typical descendants of Manasseh, according to Israeli research agency Amishav, organisation aimed at seeking the Lost Tribes of Israel.
Therefore, there seems to have been Jewish mercenary units which took put in various battles directly under General Ben Wang and communities of families of these mercenary units might have formed in the area where the General was to battle.
Incidentally, China's oldest geography book, "Shanhaijing (山海経: Mountain and Sea sutra)," written during the Spring and Autumn Warring States period (春秋戦国時代) to the Qin-Han era (秦漢時代), states that "The country of Gai (蓋) lies south of Yan (燕) and north of Wo (倭 = Wa in Japanese), and Wo belongs to Yan." This is the first example of "Wo (倭)" appearing in Chinese books. Apparently, "Wo (倭)" seems to have been regarded as a part of "Yan (燕)" around the time from the Spring and Autumn Warring States period to the Qin-Han era. If so, when St. Thomas visited former Yan (燕)'s royal capital Jicheng (薊城), the Jewish community there might have had a close relationship with Yamato Kingdom (大和国), which Nigihayahinomikoto (饒速日尊) had established under the cooperation of the Jewish tribe Ephraim, and Hata clan (秦氏), which was descendants of the Manasseh tribe and had been naturalized in Yamato in the Emperor Ojin (応神天皇)'s reign. (Later mention)
Ephraim and Manasseh mediate Korean roots of Imperial framily
While the descriptions in the Nihon Shoki (日本書紀) and Kojiki (古事記) imply that the Japanese imperial family has blood relations with both Silla (新羅) and Baekje (百済) and it appears that the Ephraim and Manasseh tribes of the ten lost tribes of Israel seem to have acted as mediators of them.
Because when Nigihayahinomikoto (饒速日尊) descended in Kinki region (畿地方) first, he called his country Yamato kingdom (大和王国) based on the Aramaic word 'Yehoamato', which means 'Yahweh's people' in order to show themselves as the tribe of Tenson (天孫族Imperial ancestors descended from Heaven), residents of the Japanese archipelago including Jomon people (縄文人) began to call themselves Yamato, and it became the national title of the Yamataikoku (邪馬台国) that was born after that.
When the General of the Eastern expedition of Kitakyushu based Korean Peninsula-linked clan (Iwai磐井?) vanquished the Kinki region (近畿地方), he inherited the name of the Yamato kingdom and called himself Kamu-yamato-iware-hiko no Mikoto (神日本磐余彦尊), which is derived from the Hebrew-Aramaic words 'Kam Yamato Ephraim Peko Shmelon Makto' and can be interpreted as 'The king of Samaria, the noble founder of the Ephraim tribe of Yahweh.' These suggest that Nigihayahinomikoto established the Yamato kingdom with the cooperation of the Jewish tribe Ephraim, and Emperor Jimmu (神武天皇) also inherited that tradition.
On the other hand, it seems that the tribe in Kitakyushu, led by Emperor Jimmu (神武天皇)'s older brother Inainomikoto (稲飯命), later founded Silla (新羅) on the Korean Peninsula. However, both Yamataikoku (邪馬台国) and Yamato Kingdom (大和王権) often dispatched troops to Silla (新羅), taking a diplomatic stance supporting Baekje (百済). In the Emperor Ojin 's reign, the Emperor sent troops to Korean Peninsula twice to realize the arrival of King of Yuzuki (弓月君), who is said to have been the third generation grandson of Qin Shi Huang (秦始皇帝BC259-BC210) and also the ancestor of Hata clan (秦氏) and to have led the people of 120 prefectures and have requested naturalization as Yamato citizens but have been stuck in Kala (加羅) after being disturbed by Silla (新羅). According to the Israeli research agency Amishav, Hata clan seems to have been the descendants of the tribe Manasseh. If the description in "Honchokouinshounroku (本朝皇胤紹運録)" is correct, the current royal family, which belongs to Emperor Keitai's direct line, is likely to be the descendants of the Manasseh tribe.
History of Primitive Christianity
(Note: This chronological table does not always match the ages described in this book.)
Uruk dynasty, the oldest Sumerian dynasty, was established. Flood legend/ The island of Dilmun is the prototype of the Garden of Eden.
Patriarchal age (Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph)
The destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah.
Joshua's Conquest of Canaan
The Judges era
Unified Kingdom Era (Saul, David, Solomon)
The era of Northern and Southern Dynasties
The Northern Israel Kingdom was overthrown by Assyrian invasion.
Creation of synagogue by Diaspora.
'Kam Yamato Ephraim Peko Shmelon Makto(神日本磐余彦尊:Kamu yamato iware hiko sumera mikoto)' started eastern expedition
Emperor Jimmu's throne.
The Kingdom of Judah was destroyed by Neo-Babylonia
The formation of a new style of Diaspora's faith through the synagogue during the templeless era.
Diaspora returned to Jerusalem and started the reconstruction of Temple
Pilgrimage to Jerusalem by Diaspora.
Alexander the Great conquered Israel.
King Ashoka, the 3rd King of the Maurya Dynasty, brought almost all of India under its control.
Jews first arrived in Kaifeng (開封) of eastern Henan province (河南省) and formed a Jewish community.
Qin Shi Huang unifyed China. Seen as the mother tribe of Qin (秦), the Qiang (羌) tribe was literally herders that grazed sheep, and was a typical descendants of Manasseh, according to Israeli research agency Amishav, organisation aimed at seeking the Lost Tribes of Israel.
The Pharisees, Sadducees, Essenes, and Zealots were born.
The faction, so called Hassidim (piety/ pietist), had rebelled against Hasmonean dynasty, which held not only the hereditary kingship but also the high priesthood, and the latter brought in the Sadducees and the Essenes to their side and confronted the Pharisees, who had separated from the faction of Hassidim.
Maccabean Revolt began.
Judah Maccabee's victory and the re-dedication of the Temple: Origin of the festival of Hanukkah
Hasmonean dynasty was established.
An order to expel Jews living in Rome was issued because of excessive missionary work.
Roman General Gnaeus Pompeius conquered Judea.
Birth of Jesus
Herod the Great passed away. Herod Antipas became Tetrarch of Galilee.。
Birth of Paul
Syrian governor Publius Sulpicius Quirinius appointed Annas as high priest.
Tiberius Julius Caesar was crowned the second Roman emperor.
Jewish governor Valerius Gratus deposed High Priest Annas, and subsequently appointed Ishmael ben Phiabi, Annas' real son Eleazar and Simon ben Camith to the high priest one after another.
Jewish governor Gratus appoints Caiaphas as high priest in place of Simon.
Emperor Tiberius expeled Jews out of Rome.
Jewish governor Pontius Peelertus was appointed.
Jesus' debut to the religious society(Cleansing of the Temple)
Marriage of Herod Antipas and Herodias／Execution of John the Baptist
Execution of Jesus／Inauguration of Jerusalem Church
Martyrdom of Stephen／Paul's conversion
Paul's trip to Damascus and Arabia, Paul's mission to Syria and Cilicia, Paul's meeting with Peter and James the Less
Herod Agrippa I (Marcus Julius Agrippas) became Tetrarch of Trachonitis, Gaulanitis, and Batanaea (now southern Syria and northern Kingdom of Jordan).
Thomas' Mission to Assyria and India
Jewish governor Pontius Pilate was dismissed.
Tiberius Julius Caesar passed away and Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (Caligula) became the third Roman emperor.
Syrian governor Wetelis dismissed high priest Caiaphas.
Expulsion of Herod Antipas. Herod Agrippa takes control of Galilee on behalf of Antipas.
Caligula was assassinated and Claudius became the fourth emperor. Herod Agrippa I acquired a territory that surpassed Herod the Great's.
Paul's arrival in Antioch, Paul and Barnabas' delivering relief supplies to Jerusalem, Martyrdom of James the Great, Peter's imprisonment and escape
Death of Agrippa I, Judia and Jerusalem became Roman provinces
Paul's first missionary trip (Cyprus, Asia Minor)
The First Apostolic Conference Agrippa II inherited most of his father's territory.
Antioch incident (Clash between Peter and Paul). Expulsion of Jews from Rome by Emperor Claudius.
Paul's second missionary trip (Asia → Macedonia, Hilipi → Thessalonica, Athens → Corinth, stayed in Corinth for a year and a half) Barnabas and Mark took a different route. (Cyprus)
Paul's third missionary trip. Intensified terrorism of Jewish warrior factions (Zealots Sicarii 54-56). Coronation of Emperor Nero (54), Prophets called themselves the Messiah appeared in various parts of Israel.
Paul's donation and arrest in Jerusalem.
Paul's detention in Caesarea
Paul escorted and drifted to Malta and arrived in Rome.
Paul's execution (or 64)、Martyrdom of James the Less
Thomas' Mission to Beijing(北京)
Martyrdom of Peter in Rome.
Emperor Nero mass-executed Christians as criminals of the Great Fire in Rome.
The Gospel of Mark
First Jewish War
Evacuation of Jerusalem Church to Perea
The Emperor Nero's suicide、Interruption of Jewish war.
Destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem
The Gospel of Luke
The fall of Masada Fortress. The end of the First Jewish War.
Council of Jamnia：Sanhedrin (the supreme council and tribunal of the Jews headed by a High Priest), which had moved to Yavneh on the southwestern shore of the Lake Galilee after the First Jewish War, excluded the Gospels from the Bible scriptures and declared Jesus' teachings heretical.
Compilation of "New Bible Dictionary"
The Gospel of Matthew
John's first, second, and third letters
Herod's royal family disappeared with the death of Agrippa II.
The Second Jewish War (The Kitos War)
All Tatars converted to Christianity and Assyria became the first Christian country in the world.
The Third Jewish War (Bar Kokhba Revolt)
The Gospel of John
King Koman (功満) of the Christian nation of Yuzuki (弓月) came to Japan with his servants from the Korean state of Paekche (百済).
The son of King Koman led 18,670 people and came to the country during the reign of the 15th Emperor Ojin (応神天皇). This is thought to be the origin of a Christian called Hata came to Japan in large sums.
The two emperors Constantine I of the East and Licinius of the West jointly promulgated the Edict of Milan and recognized freedom of religion within the empire.
Constantine I reunited the Roman Empire.
The Nestorians were ruled heresy by the Council of Ephesus.
Hata clan's chief, Hata Kawakatsu (秦河勝) built a building, which was later called Koryuji Temple (広隆寺), in Kadono (葛野), Kyoto (京都). The temple houses the statue of Maitreya Bodhisattva sitting contemplatively in the half-lotus position (弥勒菩薩半跏思惟像), whose hand looks similar to the symbol of the Trinity in the Eastern Christian Church.
Alopen (阿羅本: Abraham) led 21 Jingjiao followers, headed to China and met Emperor Taizong (太宗) of the Tang (唐) Dynasty and presented a Chinese translation of the Bible. Then Jingjiao was officially authorized to propagate in China.
What is "Baptism with The Holy Spirit"?
According to the dialectic of the Gospel of John,
【Thesis】"A man can possess eternal life through accepting testimony of the Son of man and being baptized by him." (John 5:24)
【Anti-thesis】But "The one who comes from the earth cannot accept the testimony by one from heaven." (John 3:32)
How then can a man possess eternal life?
【Synthesis】"If you want to be baptized with the Holy Spirit, you can just go back to the word which was with God in the beginning (John 1:1) and certify that God is truthful. (John 3:33)"
When he said, "You are Huichao," Zen Master Fayan thrusted vivid Self in Huichao in front of his eyes.
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