"Birth of Judaism and eastern propagation" Slide show Episode 3：Mikoshi (portable shrine)
＜Slide show Episode 3：Mikoshi＞
The Israelites left Ramesses in Egypt and headed for Canaan, the promised land. Although they arrived at Abel-Shittim, located in the plains of Moab northeast of the Dead Sea after wandering in the wilderness of Sinai for 40 years, Moses passed away at the age of 120 while overlooking the land of Canaan from the top of Mount Nebo on the east bank of the Jordan River.
The Ephraim Invasion of the West Bank
A few generations later, the Ephraim tribe, a nomadic Paleo-Mongoloid tribe, attempted to invade the fertile West Bank of the Jordan, but they were at their wits' end because of the impregnable defenses. Therefore, Joshua, the leader of the Ephraim tribe, came up with an idea to form a united front with not only the Manasseh tribe, who were also of the same Paleo-Mongoloid descent, but also other nomadic tribes living in the wilderness on the east bank of the Jordan River, in order to capture the farmer city-states of the West Bank. Joshua, who obtained the position of Moses' successor by circumcising himself and converting to Judaism, succeeded in building a united front among the twelve nomadic tribes.
Origin of Mikoshi
Joshua ordered the Levite priests to stand on the bank of the river with the Ark containing the stone tablets written the Ten Commandments of Moses. After about two thousand cubits (890 meters) the chieftains of the twelve tribes followed, with all the Israelites under them.
When the feet of the priests carrying the ark of the covenant stepped into the Jordan River, the water from upstream stopped flowing. It piled up in a heap a great distance away, at a town called Adam in the vicinity of Zarethan, and the Israelites were able to reach Jericho on the opposite bank by walking along the riverbed which had been dried up. The priests who carried the ark of the covenant stood firm on dry ground in the middle of the Jordan all this time.(Joshua 3:9-17)
Combination of nomadic and agricultural cultures
In this way, Joshua successfully conquered the agricultural city-states of the West Bank, and the time came when the twelve tribes of Israel ruled on both sides of the Jordan River. After that, in the era of David and Solomon, Israel was transformed from a union of tribes to a unified kingdom, reaching its heyday.
The myth of the conquest of Canaan is thought to have been created at the court of King Solomon regarding the historical process of combining the nomadic culture on the east bank of the Jordan River with the agricultural culture on the west bank over the course of generations or even centuries as a spectacle drama played by the hero Joshua.
Origin of globalism and nationalism
Nomads moving in search of grazing land functioned as a centrifugal force that promoted the globalization of culture, while farmers who preferred to settle in one place functioned as a centripetal force that fostered nationalism. the Israelites had characteristics of both.
After Solomon's death, the ancient kingdom of Israel split into the northern kingdom of Israel and the southern kingdom of Judah, which were then destroyed by Assyria and Neo-Babylonia respectively. For this reason, the scattered Israelites around the world began to worship at their nearest meeting place instead of worshiping and sacrificial ceremonies at the Temple in Jerusalem. This is said to be the origin of the synagogue.
On the other hand, as the number of uncircumcised Gentile Jews who could not formally join synagogues increased rapidly, ecclesias (churches) for these Gentile Jews were established in Rome and other Mediterranean coastal areas. The church movement, which started hundreds of years before the birth of Jesus, became a major tide and rushed to Jerusalem, the headquarters of Judaism, and the Jerusalem Church was born.
As a result of the Jewish Wars under Roman rule, Jerusalem was renamed Palestine and the Jews were expelled from the city. After the fall of the Eastern Roman Empire, not a few Jews were scattered around the world, but most of the inhabitants are believed to have remained in Palestine as Jews, Christians, and Muslims.
Conflict between Globalism and Nationalism in the Church
The source of the conflict between globalism and nationalism in the Christian church is the confrontation between Hebraists and Hellenists. It seems to date back to the schism of the Jerusalem Church shortly after its founding. One was the Jerusalem Church itself led by James the Less who preached the way of Jesus emphasizing the Law of Moses and the Antioch Church led by Paul, who preached the way of Jesus who was freed from the Law of Moses.
The Roman Catholic Church was originally founded by Hellenist believers who were loyal to the way of Jesus freed from the law preached by Paul but after the reconciliation between the two factions was reached in the 4th century, the four Gospels — Matthew, Mark, Luke and John — have become as the canon of the New Testament and neither James nor Paul, but Peter was canonized as the first Pope of Roman Church.
Establishment of the Eastern Orthodox Church
The Christian Church was subsequently divided into east and west at the Council of Chalcedon held in 451 AD over the humanity and divinity of Jesus.
The meeting confirmed the theory called "dyophysite" that "Christ has both divinity and humanity." The "monophysitism" advocated by Eutyches, an archimandrite of Constantinople, that "humanity was absorbed by divinity in Jesus" was denied. At the same time, Nestorius, the Archbishop of Constantinople, who called Mary the "Mother of Christ" rather than the "Mother of God," was once again ruled as a heretic although he agreed "dyophysite theory" .
By the way, prior to this, the Eastern Church stated at the Marcabuta Synod in 421 that "the Patriarch of the Eastern Church responds only to Christ," effectively proclaiming the independence of the Eastern Church.
According to Historia Ecclesiastica of Eusebius (I, xiii), Christianity took hold in Assyria when Saint Thaddeus of Edessa converted King Abgar V of Osroene, a Roman province of which capital was Edessa, in the mid-1st century AD. Assyria became the first Christian country in the world in 129-140 AD. Christianity spread to Media, Persia and Bactria till 161 AD and Eastern Churches were formed. The Assyrian Eastern Church (Syrian Church) was called Jingjiao (景教: Luminous Religion/ Nestorianism) in China.
From the Ten Commandments to Marxism
It can be seen that the Oriental Orthodox Churches were not monolithic, although they agreed that they did not obey instructions of the Roman Catholic Church.
During the Age of Discovery, the Roman Catholic Church played a leading role in the market expansion of Western European capitalism, but due to nationalist conflicts in individual Western European countries, it split into Catholicism, Protestantism, Anglicanism, and Puritans.
In this way, the contents of the Mikoshi (Ark of the Covenant) shifted from the Ten Commandments to the Five Books of Moses, the New Testament, the Quran, the Tripitaka, capitalism, and communism, but the internal feud between globalism and nationalism was maintained.
Russia's Invasion of Ukraine and US-China Conflict
With the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the world entered a period of unipolar domination of the United States. And President Putin, who advocated the Russian Orthodox Christianity, which follows the flow of Greek Orthodox Christianity instead of communism, as an ideology for national integration, has launched an invasion of Ukraine with the aim of deterring the avalanche movement of joining NATO by Eastern European countries.
On the other hand, the confrontation between the United States and China has surfaced in the Far East, because China has achieved rapid growth by adopting a market economy and has introduced the One Belt, One Road globalization policy.
The Abe administration, which had launched the policy so called "Different Dimension of Monetary Easing" aiming to overcome the long-term economic stagnation known as the "lost 30 years," failed to achieve any results. And Prim Minister Shintaro Abe was not only forced to resign but also he himself was killed by a bullet. Amid the global economic recession and inflation due to the spread of the coronavirus and soaring prices of resources and raw materials due to the conflict in Ukraine, the Japanese government has lost its direction and is in chaos, both diplomatically and economically.
Today, not only is Russia facing an unexpected uphill battle due to the Ukrainian military's counteroffensive backed by the West, but the U.S. and European countries, which are suffering from soaring inflation, are becoming burdened by the prolonged aid to Ukraine. So now the US, Europe, Russia, and China too seem to lost direction and stuck.
Snake swallows toad
One day in the late Tang Dynasty China, a monk asked Zen Master DongShan LiangJie (洞山良价807-869): "When a snake swallows a frog, should you save its life, or should you not?" The Master answered: "If you save it, it means that 'both of your eyes are blind.' If you do not save it, it means that 'both your body and shadow are not visible." (Record of the Dialogues of Dongshan)
Mr. Chung-yuan Chang (1907-1988), Professor of Philosophy at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, commented, "It is through this unusual profundity of expression that Dong-shan's inner experience is revealed. He was free from both saving the life of the frog and not saving it. His answer followed the approach of 'Jian zhong dao(兼中到)'. of the theory 'Wu Wei Pian Zheng (五位偏正),' or 'Five Relations between Particularity and Universality'. "
A few days later, while washing his bowl DongShan was watching two crows fighting over a frog. Just then the above-mentioned monk happened to come along and asked, "Why should they reach such a state?" Then, DongShan just said, "Because of you."
DongShan meant that it is his own fault that crows fight over a frog as well as the Third World War breaks out for one who becomes a single one (Androgyne) being unified with the universe through spiritual rebirth. Therefore, he should proceed everything and every moment as if he treads on thin ice regardless on which body. (Blue Cliff Record Case 41)
Commentary on Contemplation on Dharmadhatu (注華厳法界観門)
Chinese Hua-yan Buddhist Fa-zang (法蔵643-720) explained the basic principle of "unimpeded perfect mutual solution between particularity and universality or one and many" with the illustration of the mutual reflections of ten mirrors. He put ten mirrors above and below, and around-all facing one another. In the center stood an illuminated figure of Buddha. The reflection of the image was cast into each mirror. Each mirror reflected the image of every other mirror, each multiplying each other's images endlessly. The one mirror is taken into the nine other mirrors, all nine others are at the same time taken into the one. In other words, one is in all and all is in one.
GuiFeng ZongMi (圭峰宗密:780-841) in his "Commentary on Contemplation on Dharmadhatu (注華厳法界観門)" formulated this theory in the following manner.
1. When one is absorbed by all, one penetrates into all. (一摂一切、一入一切)
2. When all is absorbed by one, all penetrates into one. (一切摂一、一切入一)
3. When one is absorbed by one, one penetrates into one. (一摂一、一入一)
4. When all is absorbed by all, all penetrates into all. (一切摂一切、一切入一切)
Wu Wei Pian Zheng (五位偏正),
Dong-shan made a step further and developed what is called Wu Wei Pian Zheng (五位偏正), or Five Relations between Particularity and Universality through simplifying the four phrases' concept of "unimpeded perfect mutual solution between particularity and universality" described by ZongMi into the first two phrases of his new concept and adding another three phrases which represent three processes to leap from metaphysical understanding into spiritual enlightenment as follows;
1. Zheng zhong pian (正中偏) or particularity in universality
2. Pian zhong zheng (偏中正) or universality in particularity
3. Zheng zhong lai (正中来) or enlightenment emerging from universality
4. Pian zhong zhi (偏中至) or enlightenment arriving from particularity
5. Jian zhong dao (兼中到) or enlightenment achieved between universality and particularity.
Today, Western countries are at a crossroads as to whether to intervene in the conflict in Ukraine and the Taiwan crisis at the risk of allowing China and Russia to use nuclear weapons. It seems that not only Western countries but also all mankind will be worth participating in the koan (公案) of "Snake Swallowing Toad(蛇呑蝦蟇)".
According to San-ji(三極) of Guanyinzi(関尹子), an ancient Chinese thinker; a maggot eats a snake, a snake eats a frog, a frog eats a maggot, and they eat each other. So are the words of the saint, there is nothing wrong with the words and he speaks of the evil of existence, and of being and not nothing, of the evil of eliminating non-being and eliminating non-existence. His words are thus so that one who is skillful and holy does not keep a single word.
What is "Baptism with The Holy Spirit"?
According to the dialectic of the Gospel of John,
【Thesis】"A man can possess eternal life through accepting testimony of the Son of man and being baptized by him." (John 5:24)
【Anti-thesis】But "The one who comes from the earth cannot accept the testimony by one from heaven." (John 3:32)
How then can a man possess eternal life?
【Synthesis】"If you want to be baptized with the Holy Spirit, you can just go back to the word which was with God in the beginning (John 1:1) and certify that God is truthful. (John 3:33)"
When he said, "You are Huichao," Zen Master Fayan thrusted vivid Self in Huichao in front of his eyes.
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