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"Birth of Judaism and eastern propagation" Slide show Episode5:Origin of Koan

Jesus said, "The messengers and the prophets will come to you and give you what belongs to you. You, in turn, give them what you have, and say to yourselves, 'When will they come and take what belongs to them?'" (Thomas 88)
Church Movement and East-West Christianity

According to Mr. Shlomo Sand, Professor of history at Tel Aviv University, the Jewish population in Palestine was only about 800 thousand in the 1st century. In contrast, the Jewish population in the world was about 4 million. There might have been much more huge number of reserve army of believers who had not been circumcised. There was a robust community of such gentile Judaists especially in Rome.
Thus Paul, Peter, and John went westward and were missionary to Greece and Rome, but Thomas, Bartholomew (Nathanael), and Thaddaeus (one of the Seventy Disciples but not the Twelve Apostles, that is, brother of Thomas) were reportedly missionary to Assyria, India, and China immediately after Jesus' death.
Thaddaeus was instructed by his elder brother Thomas and evangelized in Assyria's Edessa (Ulfa) and Parthia. Edessa was the home city of the Assyrian Eastern Church and on a second-century coin found in the area is depicted a portrait of King Edessa wearing a crown with a cross. Bishops existed in 19 cities in Assyria in 95 C.E. Christianity spread to Media, Persia and Bactria in 161 C.E.
Birth of the Eastern Christian Church

Aramaic was the generic term for the languages of the nomads in the Mesopotamian region, including Assyria and Babylonia, and the Hebrew language, which was used in the Kingdom of Judah, was Canaan dialect of Aramaic.
While it is known that Jesus used Aramaic regularly, there were native Jewish communities using Aramaic in the east, especially in the Assyrian region. Thus missionary work in the east achieved more than in the west. Christian states were born in Edessa and Armenia before Rome adopted Christianity as a state religion and Eastern Churches were formed.
According to Protestant Bible commentator Mr. Arimasa Kubo (久保有政), who was the first pastor of the Ikebukuro-Nishi Church, The United Church of Christ in Japan, "The number of Christians in the East was far greater than the number of Christians in the West from 800 AD to the 14th century."
Introduction of Judaism and Jing-jiao to China

Nestorian Christianity was introduced to China around the time the Tatars converted to Christianity in masses in 129-140 AD, and it is not hard to imagine that the Zen Buddhism, which flourished after that, was influenced by it.
Assyrian Eastern Church was called Jing-jiao (景教: Luminous Religion) in China. In 635 AD, Alopen (阿羅本: Abraham) led 21 Jingjiao followers, headed to China and met Emperor Taizong (太宗) of the Tang (唐) Dynasty and presented a Chinese translation of the Bible. Then Jingjiao was officially authorized to propagate in China. These facts are recorded on 'Daqin Jingjiao Popular Chinese Monument (大秦景教流行中国碑: Nestorian Stele),' which was discovered in Xi'an (西安) in the 17th century by the Society of Jesus (Jesuits). However, this is an official record, and it appears that the Jinngjiao followers had been preaching in China before then.
On the monument of 'Reconstruction of the Temple of Purity and Truth (重建清真寺記碑)' discovered in Kaifeng city (開封市) of eastern Henan province (河南省) of China, it is said to be written that the Jews first arrived in the city in 231 BC, when General Ben Wang (王賁) of Qin (秦) reduced Wei (魏)'s capital city, Daliang (大梁: current Kaifeng City), and formed a Jewish community.
Introduction of Jing-jiao to Japan

According to Shinsen Shojiroku (新撰姓氏録: an imperially commissioned Japanese genealogical record compiled in the 8-9th century), in the eighth year (197 C.E.) of Emperor Chuai (仲哀天皇), who was the 14th Emperor counting from the first Emperor Jinmu (神武天皇), King Koman (功満) of the Christian nation of Yuzuki (弓月) came to Japan with his servants. According to the 'Nihon Shoki (日本書紀: the Chronicles of Japan, compiled in 720), "Yuzuki no Kimi (弓月君: the Lord of Yuzuki) crossed over to Japan from the Korean state of Paekche (百済)." 'Nihon Shoki' also states that the son of King Koman led 18,670 people and came to the country during the reign of the 15th Emperor Ojin (応神天皇). This is thought to be the origin of a Christian called Hata came to Japan in large sums.
According to the book Honchokouinjohunroku (本朝皇胤紹運録), which was compiled in the early days of Muromachi era (室町時代), Emperor Ankan(安閑天皇) had a prince called Toyohikomiko (豊彦王), and Toyohikomiko and Hata clan's chief, Hata Kawakatsu (秦河勝), an aide to Prince Shotoku (聖徳太子), were the same person. If this is the case, then Emperor Keitai, that is, Emperor Ankan's father, would also be a member of the Hata clan, who came from Korea and who is said to be a descendant of the first Emperor of Qin.
Eschatology in the Gospel of Thomas

Now, Jesus, who appears in the Gospel of Thomas, preaches an "eschatology" that differs from that of the Western Christian Church.
His followers said to him, "When will the rest for the dead take place, and when will the new world come?"
He said to them, "What you look for has come, but you do not know it."(Thomas 51)
According to Mr. Sasagu Arai, author of the Japanese version of The Gospel of Thomas, "What you are looking forward to has come," is not a "new world" but the "rest." And "it has already come" means that "the Kingdom," that is, "the restoration of original integration (propator = original Self) is already realized in those who know the Self." Then Jesus criticizes his disciples, "But you don't know it."
Jesus in the Gospel of Thomas preaches an eschatology that differs from that of the Western Christian Church.
The followers said to Jesus, "Tell us how our end will be."
Jesus said, "Have you discovered the beginning, then, so that you are seeking the end? For where the beginning is the end will be. Blessings on one whostands at the beginning: That one will know the end and will not taste death."(Thomas 18)
Thomas intended to explain that where the beginning is, the end will be. The one who stands at the beginning will know the end and get eternal life. One who binds start in his life with its end and makes steps forward is a man who lives in heaven while staying in this world. He criticized Orthodox Churches' eschatology and resurrection theory through these Jesus' words.
Parable of vineyard

He said, "A [...] person owned a vineyard and rented it to some farmers, so they could work it and he could collect its crop from them. He sent his slave so the farmers would give him the vineyard's crop. They grabbed him, beat him, and almost killed him, and the slave returned and told his master. His master said, 'Perhaps he didn't know them.' He sent another slave, and the farmers beat that one as well. Then the master sent his son and said, 'Perhaps they'll show my son some respect.' Because the farmers knew that he was the heir to the vineyard, they grabbed him and killed him. Anyone here with two ears had better listen!" (Thomas 65)
Jesus said, "Show me the stone that the builders rejected: that is the keystone." (Thomas 66)
According to Mr. Sasagu Arai, the above Gospel of Thomas' version of "Parable of vineyard" is quite different from the synoptic gospels' versions in their details.
According to Mr. Arai, 'a good person (A [...] person)' means 'Propate (the highest and ultimate entity),' 'Vineyard' is 'prepared soil,' 'collect its crop' is 'original self,' and 'Farmers' means 'unoriginal self.' The farmers persecuted his slaves because of 'ignorance' of 'the person who was sent.' 'The heir' sent by the owner is 'Jesus.'
Because the farmers knew that he was the heir to the vineyard, they killed him. It seems to contradict 'ignorance' as a motive for persecution. However, 'the farmers knew that he was an heir' was a superficial thing, and essentially they did not know it.
The meaning of 'Jesus' suffering and death' in the Gospel of Thomas is, like the other Gnostic Gospels, a hardship to obtain 'harvest (the original self)' and he who was killed was not Jesus' substitution. Still, the Gospel of Thomas does not accept "Jesus' resurrection from the dead." All of the Gospel of Mark, Matthew, and Luke quote the Greek version of Psalm 21:23 as it is, saying "'The stone the builders rejected has become the capstone," and suggest the resurrection of Jesus who was killed. While the Gospel of Thomas says, "Show me the stone that the builders rejected: that is the keystone," and reconfirms that 'the true living person' will not die even if he is physically killed,' as the Gospel says in its verse 11. In other words, 'Jesus is living God from the beginning' and there is no death for Jesus. The Gospel of Philip describes this point as follows; Those who say that the Lord died first and (then) rose up are in error, for he rose up first and (then) died. If one does not first attain the resurrection, he will not die. As God lives, he would [...]. (Philip 21)
The baptism of the Holy Spirit

These contents of the Gospel of Thomas are reminiscent of the Koanroku (公案録) of Zen Buddhism. And the fact that the masters of Rinzai Zen Buddhism give students training assignments called 'koan (公案trial cases)' is also considered to be influenced by Jing-jiao's theory of 'Last Day = Last Judgment'.
The Greek word Parakletos ('ο Παρακλητος) in the Chapter 15 verse 26 of the Gospel of John ("When the Counselor comes, whom I will send to you from the Father, the Spirit of truth who goes out from the Father, he will testify about me.") is translated to 'Comforter,' 'Counselor' and 'Advocate' in the English Bibles, that is. the King James Version (KJV), the New International Version (NIV) and the New Living Translation (NLT) respectively. The hard work for the each translator can be seen there.
The original text of Q Source that the author of The Gospel of John referred to here should be the following description of verse 88 of The Gospel of Thomas.
Jesus said, "The messengers and the prophets will come to you and give you what belongs to you. You, in turn, give them what you have, and say to yourselves, 'When will they come and take what belongs to them?'" (Thomas 88)
That is to say, what the Spirit of truth will give to us has belonged to us from the beginning. Therefore when we are baptized also depends on ourselves, or when we are prepared. In other words, when we have discovered that we have been one with God from the beginning, we will be baptized with the Holy Spirit. (Hensho: 2020-09-01)
'Kanwa (看話: meditation of word)' and 'Mokusho (黙照: Silent Illumination)'

Today, Zen Buddhism in Japan is generally divided into two groups: Rinzai Buddhism (臨済宗), which favors the discipline of koan (公案) training called 'Kanwa (看話: meditation of word)' and Soto Buddhism (曹洞宗), which uses 'Mokusho (黙照: Silent Illumination)' as the fundamental approach to enlightenment. One day, a monk asked Zen Master FengXue, "Speech or silence is just a half of reality, how can I capture the whole thing?" Then Fengxue sang a passage of great poet DuFu(杜甫) saying, "I always remember Jiangnan (江南) in the third month, partridges calling amidst all the flowers so fragrant." (Wumenguan CASE 24)
Wumen Huikai (無門慧開1182-1260), who wrote "Wumenguan (無門関Gateless Barrier)", an analects of Koan during the Southern Song Dynasty (南宋1127-1279), commented this koan (Wumenguan Case 24) saying, "FengXue's spirit is like lightening. It catches the target and runs straight away. But why does he rest upon the tip of ancient one's tongue (DuFu's poem) and not cut it off? If you realize this deeply, a way (of spiritual rebirth) will be found naturally. Just leave all words behind and say one phrase." He also gave us another advice in his following verse;
FengXue does not speak in his usual style;
Before he says anything,
the secret, which the thousand sages have not transmitted, is already manifested.
If you go chattering glibly,
You should be ashamed of yourself.
《The Gateless Barrier》CASE 24: Detachment From Words
A monk asked FengXue in all earnestness, "Both speech and silence are concerned with ri (離) and mi (微). How can we transcend them?" FengXue said, "I constantly think of Konan (江南) in March, where partridges are chirping among hundreds of fragrant blossoms."
Ri (離) is to detach from phenomena and keep silence, that is, the body of dharmata (the true nature of reality法性).
Mi (微) means "subtle and incredible," that is, the use of dharmata.
FengXue's activity of mind is like lightening. When he gains the road, he immediately dash to the target. But why does he rest upon the tip of ancient one's tongue and not cut it off? If you realize this deeply, a way (of spiritual rebirth) will be found naturally. Just leave all words behind and say one phrase.
FengXue does not speak in his usual style;
Before he says anything, it is already manifested.
If you go chattering glibly,
You should be ashamed of yourself.

What is "Baptism with The Holy Spirit"?

According to the dialectic of the Gospel of John,
【Thesis】"A man can possess eternal life through accepting testimony of the Son of man and being baptized by him." (John 5:24)
【Anti-thesis】But "The one who comes from the earth cannot accept the testimony by one from heaven." (John 3:32)
How then can a man possess eternal life?
【Synthesis】"If you want to be baptized with the Holy Spirit, you can just go back to the word which was with God in the beginning (John 1:1) and certify that God is truthful. (John 3:33)"
When he said, "You are Huichao," Zen Master Fayan thrusted vivid Self in Huichao in front of his eyes.
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